When someone is overactive, highly energetic, and too quick in doing things in general, people tend to say “Tumhe ADHD hai Kya?” This is the normal incident happening in daily lives but if we see in-depth, many people are unaware of the meaning of this term but still use it for others. So, most of us are aware of this term but we don’t know the exact meaning, consequences, and effects of this disorder.
Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is neuropsychiatric that includes a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with the functioning and development of the individual. It is consists of 3 main components that are-
Inattention: it means when a person lacks persistence, is unable to be focused on one task and gets distracted easily from the task in the process, and is not due to lack of comprehension.
Hyperactivity: it is a response in which a person involves in inappropriate tasks constantly or excessively fidgets, talks, or moves around restlessly.
Impulsivity: it is a response in which a person makes decisions without even properly thinking about them even if they can cause harm in the future to get gratification or immediate rewards.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
A person with ADHD fails to give close attention to details, does not seem to listen, difficulty in engaging in tasks for a long time and constantly fidgets, talks or interrupts in between, is reckless, loses things very easily, does not like to wait in the queue, etc.
ADHD is normally observed and diagnosed in elementary school children, adolescents, and adults. The onset of hyperactivity is seen in preschool children and restlessness, inattention and impulsivity are seen in adolescents and adults.
ADHD occurs in about 5% of children and 2.5% of adults in all cultures.
It can be caused by a variety of factors – genetics that is, familial transmission, imbalance in dopamine levels, changes in brain structure and chemistry and maltreatment, trauma, neglect, abuse in childhood.
1. Pharmacotherapy: stimulants and non-stimulants are given to reduce inattention and impulsivity and reduce anxiety as well.
Psychoeducation - informing the peers and family about the person’s condition and help them to cope better with the condition.
Behavior therapy - teaching appropriate skills to the person and his family to enhance and reinforce positive behaviors and modify or eliminate negative ones.
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention - it involves teaching problem-solving strategies, self-control, self-evaluation, self-monitoring etc.to cope with inattention and impulsive behavior.
3. Parental Training: to teach parents the skills of how to manage a child’s impulsive behavior, reinforce the positive behavior, and eliminate negative behaviors.
4. Social skill training: the therapist tries to teach social skills to the child through role-plays, modeling, etc. of how to behave in different situations.
Now I should tell you some interesting facts about ADHD – a few famous celebrities that you all must have heard about like Albert Einstein, Emma Watson, Tom Cruise, Leonardo Da Vinci, etc. were all suffering from ADHD in their childhood but still grown to be so famous in present. This was all about ADHD that we all need to know about and be aware of the constituents of it so that we can help people suffering from ADHD.